Book a ConsultationReception


Causes and Treatments for Facial Wrinkles and Lines

Share page:

How to Correct Lines and Wrinkles

Wrinkles are a natural part of the ageing process, and they appear on everyone’s skin as time progresses. While some people embrace these changes, others seek ways to reduce their appearance. In this blog, Consultant Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeon Anca Breahna will provide an overview of the causes of facial wrinkles and the different methods available to treat them.

What Causes Facial Wrinkles?

Here are some causes of facial wrinkles:

Ageing and Skin Elasticity

As you grow older, your skin loses some of its elasticity. This is due to the natural decrease in production of collagen and elastin, two proteins that are essential for maintaining skin’s firmness and flexibility. Over time, as the levels of these proteins diminish, the skin becomes less able to snap back into place after facial movements, leading to permanent grooves or lines.

Sun Exposure and Skin Damage

Exposure to sunlight is another significant factor that contributes to facial wrinkles. Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun penetrate deep into the skin, breaking down collagen and elastin. This not only accelerates the appearance of wrinkles but also increases the risk of skin discolouration and other types of sun damage. Wearing sunscreen and protective clothing can help minimise these effects.

Lifestyle Factors

Several lifestyle choices can influence the development of wrinkles. Smoking, for example, impairs blood flow to the skin, which can lead to premature ageing. A diet lacking in fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants, can also affect skin health. Additionally, poor sleep habits can prevent the skin from repairing itself effectively, leading to more noticeable signs of ageing.

Genetic Factors

Genetics also play a role in how your skin ages. The traits you inherit from your parents can determine how quickly wrinkles develop and how pronounced they become. While you cannot alter your genetics, understanding your family history can help you take earlier and more tailored preventive measures.

Facial Expressions and Muscle Use

Frequent and repetitive facial expressions also contribute to the formation of wrinkles. Each time you frown, smile, or squint, your facial muscles cause the skin to fold. Over many years, these folds can become permanent, leading to characteristic lines on the face.

Types of Facial Wrinkles

Types of facial wrinkles

Here are the types of facial wrinkles:

Expression Lines

Expression lines are wrinkles that form as a result of facial movements. Common examples include forehead lines from raising your eyebrows, crow’s feet which appear at the corners of your eyes from squinting, and smile lines around your mouth. These wrinkles are among the first to appear because they are directly linked to facial muscle movements.

Gravitational Folds

As gravity pulls on your skin over the years, it loses its tightness and begins to sag, forming what are known as gravitational folds. These folds are most noticeable along the jawline and neck, where the skin naturally starts to droop with age.

Atrophic Crinkling Rhytids

These are the fine lines that typically appear as a mesh of tiny wrinkles across your skin. They are primarily caused by the loss of elasticity in the skin and can become more pronounced with extensive sun exposure.

Preventative Measures Against Wrinkles

Protecting your skin from the sun is one of the most effective ways to prevent wrinkles. Applying a broad-spectrum sunscreen that guards against both UVA and UVB rays is essential. It’s advisable to use a product with at least SPF 30 and to reapply it every two hours when you are outdoors, more often if you are swimming or sweating. Wearing hats, sunglasses, and long-sleeved clothing can also provide additional protection against the sun’s harmful rays.

Healthy Lifestyle Choices

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can significantly impact the health of your skin. This includes eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, which are loaded with antioxidants. These nutrients help combat the free radicals that can accelerate ageing. Regular physical activity improves circulation, which can help keep your skin healthy and vibrant. Additionally, ensuring you get enough sleep each night allows your skin to repair and regenerate.

Proper Skin Care Routine

Developing a consistent skin care routine can help protect your skin from the environment and the signs of ageing. This should include gentle cleansing to remove dirt and excess oils, moisturising to maintain the skin’s hydration, and regular exfoliation to remove dead skin cells. Choosing products that are appropriate for your skin type and concerns is key. For instance, those with dry skin may benefit from richer, more hydrating products, whereas those with oily skin might prefer lighter, water-based products.

Treatments for Wrinkles

Topical Retinoids

Retinoids are derivatives of Vitamin A and are highly regarded for their ability to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. They work by increasing cell turnover and stimulating collagen production, which can improve skin texture and firmness. Topical retinoids are available in various forms, such as creams and serums, and they should be applied as part of your nightly skincare routine. It’s important to note that retinoids can make your skin more sensitive to the sun, so adequate sun protection is necessary when using these products.

Peptides and Antioxidants

Peptides are small chains of amino acids that can penetrate the skin and help stimulate collagen production. Products containing peptides can improve skin texture and reduce the appearance of lines and wrinkles. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, help protect the skin from damage by neutralising free radicals. These ingredients are commonly found in serums and creams and can be used daily to improve skin health and appearance.

Advanced Procedures for Facial Wrinkles and Lines

When it comes to treating wrinkles, advanced procedures can offer significant improvements. These treatments, which should be carried out by qualified professionals, target deeper issues within the skin that creams and serums can’t reach. Here’s a look at some of the most effective methods currently available.

Neuromodulator Injections

Neuromodulator injection is one of the most well-known treatments for reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles. It works by temporarily paralysing the muscles beneath the skin that cause wrinkles, particularly around the forehead and eyes. The process involves a few small injections, and the effects last about three to six months. While neuromodulators are widely used and generally safe, it’s important to have these injections done by Anca to avoid any unwanted side effects, such as drooping eyelids or asymmetry in facial expressions.

Dermal Fillers

Dermal fillers for facial wrinkles

Dermal fillers are another popular option for smoothing out wrinkles and restoring volume to the face. Unlike neuromodulator injection, which relaxes the muscles, fillers plump up the skin directly. They are injected under the skin to fill in wrinkles and can also be used to enhance facial features such as lips and cheeks. The results are immediate and can last from six months to over a year, depending on the type of filler used. The most common types include hyaluronic acid, which naturally occurs in the skin, making it a safe choice for most people.

Laser Resurfacing

Laser resurfacing is a powerful treatment that uses concentrated beams of light to remove layers of skin, promoting new skin growth that is smoother and firmer. There are two main types: ablative and non-ablative. Ablative lasers are more intense, removing the top layer of skin and part of the underlying layer, which offers dramatic results but requires some downtime for healing. Non-ablative lasers are less invasive, targeting the deeper layers of the skin without removing the top layer, which means recovery time is quicker. Both types help to reduce fine lines and improve skin texture.

Chemical Peels

Chemical peels involve applying a chemical solution to the skin, which causes the top layers to peel off over a period of days. As the old skin sheds, new, less wrinkled skin forms beneath it. Peels range from mild to deep, with stronger peels providing more significant results but also requiring more downtime. A chemical peel can be a good option if you’re looking to improve skin texture and tone, in addition to reducing wrinkles.


Microdermabrasion is a less invasive procedure that involves sanding down the outer layer of skin with a special instrument. This process helps to remove dead skin cells and stimulate collagen production, which can reduce the appearance of wrinkles over time. It’s typically used for finer lines and minor skin imperfections, and it’s suitable for all skin types.

These procedures can be very effective in reducing wrinkles and improving the overall appearance of your skin, but they come with varying levels of risk and recovery time. It’s important to consult with Anca to determine which treatment is best suited to your skin type and the specific issues you want to address. Always choose a reputable practitioner to ensure the best results and minimise potential complications.

Technological Innovations in Wrinkle Treatment

The skincare industry is continually developing new tools and devices to help reduce the appearance of wrinkles. These range from LED light therapy devices, which can stimulate collagen production, to micro-needling tools, which promote skin rejuvenation through controlled micro-injuries that encourage the body’s natural healing processes.

Research in the field is leading to exciting new developments in the treatment of wrinkles. Innovations such as gene therapy and stem cell technology may soon provide more advanced solutions to combat the signs of ageing. These technologies aim to repair skin at the cellular level, offering potentially longer-lasting effects than current treatments.

Choosing the Right Treatment for Your Skin Type

Skin types vary widely, and knowing your specific skin type is essential for choosing the most effective treatments. The common skin types are normal, dry, oily, combination, and sensitive. Each type has different needs; for example, oily skin may benefit from lightweight, non-comedogenic products, while dry skin may require richer, more hydrating treatments. Anca can help you identify your skin type and recommend the most suitable products and treatments.

Personalised Skincare and Treatments

Personalisation is becoming increasingly important in skincare. What works well for one person may not be effective for another, even if they have the same skin type. Factors like age, hormonal changes, environmental exposure, and genetic predispositions can all influence how your skin reacts to different treatments. Personalised skincare regimes, tailored by professionals to match your specific needs and goals, can be more effective in treating wrinkles and maintaining healthy skin.

FAQs about Causes and Treatments for Facial Wrinkles and Lines


What are the primary causes of facial wrinkles?

  • Facial wrinkles are primarily caused by the natural ageing process, which leads to a decrease in collagen and elastin in the skin. Other factors include sun exposure, repeated facial expressions, smoking, and poor dietary habits, all of which can accelerate the development of wrinkles.

Can facial wrinkles be prevented?

  • While it’s impossible to completely prevent facial wrinkles, their appearance can be delayed through several methods. Regular use of sunscreen to protect against UV rays, maintaining a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and adequate hydration, and using appropriate skincare products like moisturisers and retinoids can all help reduce the onset of wrinkles.

Are there effective treatments for reducing facial wrinkles?

  • Yes, there are multiple effective treatments for reducing facial wrinkles. Topical treatments like retinoids and antioxidants can help by promoting skin renewal and preventing further damage. For more pronounced wrinkles, procedures such as neuromodulator injections, dermal fillers, and laser resurfacing can provide more significant improvements.

What should I consider before undergoing a cosmetic procedure for wrinkles?

  • Before undergoing any cosmetic procedure, it’s important to consult with a qualified plastic surgeon to discuss your skin type, medical history, and the specific wrinkles you want to treat. This will help determine the most appropriate treatment. Additionally, understanding the potential risks, recovery time, and cost of the procedure is crucial.

How often should I repeat professional treatments like neuromodulator injections or fillers?

  • The frequency of repeat treatments varies depending on the specific procedure and individual results. Skin relaxing injections results generally lasts between three to six months, while the effects of dermal fillers can last from six months to over a year. Anca will recommend a schedule based on how your skin responds to the initial treatment and your desired outcomes.

Further Reading about Procedures at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery

Medical References about Causes and Treatments for Facial Wrinkles and Lines

Back to blog

About Anca Breahna – Consultant Plastic Surgeon at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery

Ms Anca Breahna, PhD, MSc, FEBOPRAS, FRCS (Plast) is a highly regarded Consultant Plastic Surgeon specialising in the field of Aesthetic and Reconstructive Plastic Surgery.

Anca performs a wide range of Hand Surgery & Skin Surgery and Aesthetic Breast, Body and Face Surgery,

Anca Breahna - Female Plastic Surgeon in Chester UK

As one of the very few female Plastic Surgeons in the region, she is able to offer that unique female perspective, with empathy, attention to detail and personalised care. It is Anca’s true dedication and commitment to her field, that sets her aside from her peers. Her extensive surgical training means that you are in safe hands. She is renowned for providing exceptional care, support and helping achieve realistic goals for her patients.

Anca Breahna’s surgical training has mainly been undertaken within the United Kingdom. She began a rigorous training programme in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 1999, after achieving her medical degree from the University of Bucharest. Miss Breahna attained her PhD degree at the same university in 2007 for her medical research. She then relocated to the UK and has worked Internationally to further extend her qualifications and training.

The team at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery looks forward to meeting you and will treat you with respect, consideration, and empathy.

Your Next Steps

Do your Research

  • Please read our website pages and blogs to learn more about your intended procedure.
  • All Surgery has risks and potential complications. Please read more about the risks of your surgery.

Get a Medical Referral before your consultation at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery

  • A Referral from your Doctor is not essential, however it is recommended to have one

Making The Most Of Your Consultation

  • Please arrive slightly early for your in-person consultation with Anca – Car parking is usually available on-site
  • You are welcome to bring a friend or relative to help consider the information and discuss your options
  • Please be aware you may need to undress for a physical exam so wear simple clothes
  • Ensure you also take a lot of notes during the consultation and thoroughly read all the documents provided

Want more information before scheduling your consultation?

  • Please call to find out more about availability, pricing and medical payment plans
  • Request more information about the procedure – call us or email us

How to Book your Consultation with Anca Breahna – Plastic Surgeon

  • You can book your consultation with Anca by paying the £150 cosmetic consultation fee when you make your appointment. This fee covers further consultations about the same concern.

Contact Anca’s Team

Call Claire or Joedy on 03332 244111 to arrange your consultation or email us for more information.

Send A Message

Send an enquiry

"*" indicates required fields

Please upload any relevant photos of what you are trying to achieve or your current situation. This may help you get an earlier surgery or consult appointment. Limit 20MB & 3 images. Only include your face if relevant.
Drop files here or
Accepted file types: jpg, png, jpeg, gif, Max. file size: 20 MB, Max. files: 3.

    Let's Talk

    Get in touch


    03332 244111


    Chester Wellness Centre,
    Wrexham Road,
    CH4 9DE

    Practice Manager: Claire Bate – Phone 0800 080 6026

    Patient Coordinator: Joedy Williams – Phone 03332 244111

    Get Directions