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Treatment Options for Lipoma and Other Swellings

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Effective Solutions for Lipomas and Other Swellings

When you notice a lump under your skin, it can be concerning. Knowing what these lumps might be and how to treat them is important for your peace of mind. In this blog, Consultant Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeon Anca Breahna will give you more details about lipomas and other common types of swellings, and why getting the right diagnosis is essential.

What is a Lipoma?

A lipoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumour made up of fat tissue. These growths are usually soft to the touch, movable, and generally painless. They can occur anywhere on your body where there is fat tissue, but they are most commonly found on the neck, shoulders, back, abdomen, arms, and thighs. Lipomas usually grow slowly over several months or years and are usually less than 5 cm in diameter, although they can sometimes grow larger.

Common Types of Swellings

Besides lipomas, there are other types of swellings you might encounter. Some of the most common include:

  • Cysts: These are sac-like pockets of tissue that can be filled with fluid, pus, or other material. They often feel like small, smooth lumps under the skin and can develop anywhere on the body.
  • Abscesses: These are collections of pus that form due to infection. They are usually painful, red, and warm to the touch.
  • Hematomas: These are collections of blood outside of blood vessels, usually caused by an injury. They can feel like firm lumps and often change colour as they heal.
  • Lymph nodes: These small, bean-shaped glands are part of your immune system. They can swell in response to infection or other conditions, becoming palpable under the skin, particularly in the neck, armpits, and groin.

Importance of Proper Diagnosis

Getting the right diagnosis is essential to managing any swelling effectively. While some lumps are harmless, others can signal more serious health issues. Here’s why proper diagnosis matters:

  • Accurate Identification: Knowing exactly what type of swelling you have ensures you receive the right treatment. For instance, a lipoma doesn’t usually require treatment unless it bothers you, but an abscess might need to be drained and treated with antibiotics.
  • Avoiding Unnecessary Worry: Understanding the nature of your lump can reduce anxiety. Many people fear the worst when they find a lump, but most swellings are not cancerous.
  • Preventing Complications: Some swellings can lead to complications if not treated appropriately. For example, an untreated abscess can spread infection, while a misdiagnosed cyst might be mistaken for something more serious.

To achieve an accurate diagnosis, Anca will likely start with a physical examination and ask about your medical history. Depending on the characteristics of the swelling, further tests might be recommended. These can include:

  • Ultrasound: This imaging test uses sound waves to create pictures of the inside of your body. It can help determine if a lump is solid or fluid-filled.
  • MRI or CT Scan: These imaging tests provide detailed pictures of the body’s structures and can help identify the nature and extent of a swelling.
  • Biopsy: In some cases, your doctor might recommend removing a small sample of tissue from the lump for laboratory analysis. This can confirm whether the swelling is benign or malignant.

Once a diagnosis is made, Anca will discuss the best treatment options for your specific situation.

Lipoma Causes and Risk Factors

Understanding the causes and risk factors of lipomas and other swellings can help you manage your health more effectively.

·       Genetic Predispositions

Genetics play a significant role in the development of lipomas. If you have a family history of lipomas, you are more likely to develop them. Conditions like familial multiple lipomatosis can lead to multiple lipomas forming on the body. This inherited condition highlights the influence of genetics on lipoma development. Knowing your family’s medical history can be helpful in understanding your own risk.

·       Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle factors can also contribute to the development of swellings. For instance, injuries or repeated trauma to a particular area of your body can lead to swellings such as hematomas or cysts. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet, supports overall skin health and may help reduce the occurrence of certain swellings.

Stress and poor dietary choices can sometimes exacerbate underlying conditions that lead to swelling. Ensuring you have a well-rounded diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats can contribute positively to your skin’s health and overall body function.

·       Environmental Influences

Environmental factors can also influence the development of swellings. Exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants can affect your skin and tissues, potentially leading to the formation of lumps and swellings. For instance, working in environments with high exposure to toxic substances can increase the risk of skin abnormalities.

Additionally, sun exposure and other environmental stressors can contribute to skin damage, which might lead to cysts or other types of swellings. Protecting your skin from excessive sun exposure by using sunscreen and wearing protective clothing can help minimise these risks.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Diagnosis for lipoma and other swellings

Lipomas and other swellings can have different causes, appearances, and implications. Knowing how to identify and diagnose these conditions is essential for getting the right treatment.

Identifying Lipomas

Lipomas are benign (non-cancerous) tumours composed of fat tissue. They are typically easy to identify due to several characteristic features:

  • Texture: Lipomas are generally soft and doughy to the touch. They can be moved slightly under the skin with gentle pressure.
  • Size: They are usually small, often less than 5 cm in diameter, but they can grow larger over time.
  • Location: Lipomas can occur anywhere on the body where fat is present. Common sites include the neck, shoulders, back, abdomen, arms, and thighs.
  • Pain: Most lipomas are painless. However, if a lipoma presses on nearby nerves or contains many blood vessels, it might cause discomfort or pain.

While lipomas are benign, it’s important to monitor any changes in size, shape, or pain levels, as these could indicate a need for further medical evaluation.

Recognising Other Swellings

Besides lipomas, there are different other types of swellings you might encounter. Recognising these can help you understand what might be causing the lump and whether you need to seek medical advice.

  • Cysts: These are sac-like pockets of tissue that can be filled with fluid, pus, or other material. Cysts often feel like firm, round lumps under the skin. They can develop anywhere on the body and vary in size.
  • Abscesses: Abscesses are collections of pus caused by infection. They are typically painful, red, and warm to the touch. Abscesses require prompt medical treatment to prevent the spread of infection.
  • Haematomas: These are collections of blood outside of blood vessels, usually resulting from injury. Haematomas often feel firm and may change colour as they heal, starting red or purple and gradually turning yellow or green.
  • Swollen Lymph Nodes: Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped glands that are part of your immune system. They can swell in response to infection or other conditions, becoming palpable under the skin, particularly in the neck, armpits, and groin.

Recognising these different types of swellings can help you determine the best course of action. For instance, while lipomas and cysts are often benign, abscesses and swollen lymph nodes may require more immediate medical attention.

Surgical Treatment Options for Lipoma

When dealing with lipomas and other swellings, surgery might be a recommended option, particularly if the lump causes discomfort, pain, or cosmetic concerns, or if there is uncertainty about the diagnosis.

Lipoma Excision

Lipoma excision is a surgical procedure where the lipoma is completely removed. This option is often chosen if the lipoma is large, growing, causing pain, or is located in a problematic area. Here’s what you can expect from the procedure:

  • Preparation: Before the surgery, Anca will discuss the procedure with you, explaining what will happen and what to expect during recovery. You may need to undergo some preoperative tests to ensure you are fit for surgery.
  • Anaesthesia: Lipoma excision is usually performed under local anaesthesia, which numbs the area around the lipoma. In some cases, if the lipoma is large or in a difficult location, general anaesthesia might be used.
  • Procedure: Anca makes a small incision over the lipoma and carefully removes the fatty lump. The incision is then closed with stitches. The procedure takes about 30 minutes to an hour, depending on the size and location of the lipoma.
  • Recovery: After the surgery, you might experience some pain and swelling at the incision site. This can usually be managed with over-the-counter painkillers. The stitches are usually removed after about a week, and you should avoid strenuous activities for a few weeks to allow proper healing.
  • Follow-up: Anca will schedule follow-up appointments to monitor your recovery and ensure there are no complications, such as infection or excessive scarring.


Liposuction is another surgical option for removing lipomas, especially larger ones. This technique involves using a suction device to remove the fatty tissue. Liposuction can be less invasive than traditional excision and may result in smaller scars.

  • Preparation: Similar to lipoma excision, you will have a consultation with Anca to discuss the procedure. Preoperative tests may be conducted to ensure you are suitable for liposuction.
  • Anaesthesia: Liposuction is performed under local anaesthesia with sedation or general anaesthesia, depending on the size and number of lipomas being treated.
  • Procedure: Anca makes a small incision near the lipoma and inserts a thin tube called a cannula. The cannula is used to break up the fatty tissue, which is then suctioned out. The incision is small and usually requires minimal stitching.
  • Recovery: Recovery from liposuction is generally quicker than from excision. You may experience bruising, swelling, and mild pain, which can be managed with painkillers. Most people can return to normal activities within a few days, but strenuous activities should be avoided for a few weeks.
  • Follow-up: Follow-up visits are important to check the healing process and address any concerns. Anca will also monitor for any signs of complications, such as infection or contour irregularities.

Advanced Surgical Techniques

In addition to traditional excision and liposuction, several advanced surgical techniques can be used to treat lipomas and other swellings. These methods may offer benefits such as reduced scarring, quicker recovery, and less pain.

Endoscopic Excision

Endoscopic excision involves using a small camera and specialised instruments to remove the lipoma through a very small incision. This technique allows for precise removal of the lipoma with minimal damage to surrounding tissues.

  • Anaesthesia: This procedure is usually done under local anaesthesia with sedation or general anaesthesia.
  • Procedure: A small incision is made, and an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a camera) is inserted to visualise the lipoma. Specialised instruments are then used to remove the lipoma.
  • Recovery: The recovery time is often shorter compared to traditional excision, with less pain and scarring.

Laser-Assisted Lipoma Removal

Laser-assisted lipoma removal uses laser technology to break down the fatty tissue, which is then removed through a small incision. This method can reduce bleeding and minimise scarring.

  • Anaesthesia: The procedure can be performed under local anaesthesia.
  • Procedure: A laser fibre is inserted into the lipoma, which breaks down the fatty tissue. The liquefied fat is then suctioned out.
  • Recovery: Recovery is usually quick, with minimal pain and scarring.

Radiofrequency Ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) involves using radio waves to generate heat, which destroys the targeted tissue. This method is effective for treating various types of swellings, including lipomas, by causing the fatty tissue to break down and shrink.

  • Preparation: Prior to the procedure, Anca will evaluate the lipoma and discuss your medical history. You may undergo some tests to confirm you are a good candidate for RFA.
  • Anaesthesia: RFA is typically performed under local anaesthesia, numbing the area around the lipoma.
  • Procedure: A thin probe is inserted into the lipoma, guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound or CT scan. Radiofrequency energy is then delivered through the probe, generating heat that destroys the fat cells. The procedure usually takes about 30 minutes to an hour.
  • Recovery: Recovery from RFA is generally quick, with most patients experiencing only mild discomfort and swelling at the treatment site. These symptoms usually subside within a few days. You can return to your normal activities within a day or two.


Cryotherapy involves using extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissue. This technique can be used to treat various skin conditions and swellings, including lipomas. The procedure works by freezing the lipoma, causing the fat cells to die and be gradually absorbed by the body.

  • Preparation: Before the procedure, Anca will assess the lipoma and review your medical history. You may need some preoperative tests to ensure you are suitable for cryotherapy.
  • Anaesthesia: Cryotherapy is usually performed under local anaesthesia, numbing the area around the lipoma.
  • Procedure: Anca uses a special instrument called a cryoprobe to apply liquid nitrogen or another freezing agent directly to the lipoma. The extreme cold destroys the fat cells, which are then reabsorbed by the body over time. The procedure takes about 30 minutes.
  • Recovery: Recovery from cryotherapy is usually straightforward. You might experience some redness, swelling, or blistering at the treatment site, but these symptoms generally resolve within a few days to a week. You can usually return to your normal activities shortly after the procedure.

Comparing Treatment Options

When faced with the decision of how to treat lipomas and other swellings, it’s essential to compare the various options available to you. This comparison will help you understand the efficacy and outcomes of each treatment, their associated costs, and their accessibility and availability. By considering these factors, you can make an informed choice that best suits your needs and circumstances.

Efficacy, Outcomes, Cost Consideration, Accessibility and Availability

Treatment Option Efficacy Outcomes Costs
Surgical Excision Highly effective in completely removing lipomas and other swellings, reducing the chance of recurrence. Complete removal of the lump; some scarring depending on incision size and location; short recovery time with initial pain and swelling. More expensive due to operating room time, anesthesia, and post-operative care; costs range from several hundred to several thousand pounds, depending on surgery complexity.
Liposuction Effective for larger lipomas and less invasive than traditional excision; not suitable for all swellings. Smaller scars and quicker recovery than excision; slightly higher chance of recurrence due to difficulty in completely removing fat cells. Generally, less expensive than traditional surgical excision; prices range from several hundred to a few thousand pounds, depending on size and number of lipomas treated.
Laser Therapy Effective for smaller lipomas and certain swellings; less invasive and can precisely target the affected area. Minimal scarring; quick recovery; relatively painless; redness and swelling usually resolve in a few days. Can be expensive, especially if multiple sessions are required; each session costs several hundred pounds, with total cost varying based on number of treatments needed.
Radiofrequency Ablation Effective for various swellings, including lipomas; uses heat to destroy affected tissue, absorbed by the body. Minimal scarring; quick recovery; small chance of recurrence if all fatty tissue is not destroyed. Comparable in cost to laser therapy; procedure costs several hundred to a few thousand pounds, depending on treatment area and number of sessions required.
Cryotherapy Effective for certain swellings, including lipomas; involves freezing the lump, causing cells to die and be reabsorbed. Minimal scarring; quick recovery; common redness and swelling at treatment site, resolving within a week. Generally, less expensive than other minimally invasive procedures; each session typically costs a few hundred pounds, with total cost depending on number of treatments needed.


FAQs about Treatment Options for Lipoma and Other Swellings


Can lipomas turn into cancer?

  • Lipomas are benign tumours and do not turn into cancer. However, it’s important to get any new or changing lumps evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out other conditions, including liposarcomas, which are malignant and require different treatment.

How do I decide between surgical and non-surgical treatments?

The decision between surgical and non-surgical treatments depends on several factors, including:

  • Size and Location: Larger lipomas or those in areas where they cause discomfort might require surgical removal.
  • Symptoms: If the lipoma is painful or affects your daily activities, surgery might be the best option.
  • Personal Preference: Some people prefer to avoid surgery and opt for monitoring or non-surgical treatments if the lipoma is not problematic.

Discussing your symptoms, concerns, and lifestyle with Anca will help determine the most suitable approach.

Are there any risks associated with minimally invasive procedures?

While minimally invasive procedures generally have fewer risks than traditional surgery, they are not without potential complications:

  • Infection: As with any procedure involving incisions or injections, there is a risk of infection.
  • Scarring: Although scarring is usually minimal, it can still occur.
  • Incomplete Removal: Some methods, like liposuction, may not remove all the lipoma cells, leading to potential recurrence.

Anca will discuss these risks with you before the procedure.

How long does it take to recover from lipoma removal surgery?

Recovery time can vary depending on the type of surgery:

  • Surgical Excision: Usually, you can resume normal activities within a week, although strenuous activities should be avoided for a few weeks.
  • Liposuction: Recovery is generally quicker, with most people returning to normal activities within a few days.
  • Minimally Invasive Procedures: Procedures like laser therapy, RFA, and cryotherapy usually have very short recovery times, often just a few days.

Will my insurance cover lipoma removal?

Insurance coverage for lipoma removal depends on several factors, including the reason for removal and your insurance plan:

  • Medically Necessary: If the lipoma is causing pain, restricting movement, or there is a concern it could be malignant, insurance is more likely to cover the procedure.
  • Cosmetic Reasons: If the removal is solely for cosmetic purposes, insurance is less likely to cover it.

Further Reading about Skin Surgery at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery

Medical References about Treatment Options for Lipoma and Other Swellings

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About Anca Breahna – Consultant Plastic Surgeon at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery

Ms Anca Breahna, PhD, MSc, FEBOPRAS, FRCS (Plast) is a highly regarded Consultant Plastic Surgeon specialising in the field of Aesthetic and Reconstructive Plastic Surgery.

Anca performs a wide range of Hand Surgery & Skin Surgery and Aesthetic Breast, Body and Face Surgery,

Anca Breahna - Female Plastic Surgeon in Chester UK

As one of the very few female Plastic Surgeons in the region, she is able to offer that unique female perspective, with empathy, attention to detail and personalised care. It is Anca’s true dedication and commitment to her field, that sets her aside from her peers. Her extensive surgical training means that you are in safe hands. She is renowned for providing exceptional care, support and helping achieve realistic goals for her patients.

Anca Breahna’s surgical training has mainly been undertaken within the United Kingdom. She began a rigorous training programme in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 1999, after achieving her medical degree from the University of Bucharest. Miss Breahna attained her PhD degree at the same university in 2007 for her medical research. She then relocated to the UK and has worked Internationally to further extend her qualifications and training.

The team at Cheshire Cosmetic Surgery looks forward to meeting you and will treat you with respect, consideration, and empathy.

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How to Book your Consultation with Anca Breahna – Plastic Surgeon

  • You can book your consultation with Anca by paying the £150 cosmetic consultation fee when you make your appointment. This fee covers further consultations about the same concern.

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Call Claire or Joedy on 03332 244111 to arrange your consultation or email us for more information.

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